Fructose is a component of table sugar (sucrose) and of high fructose corn syrup. Fructose has been increasingly consumed in recent years. Human and animals have been shown to have abnormal lipids, insulin resistance and hypertension with high intakes of dietary fructose. These disorders have increased morbidity and mortality, possibly due to increased cardiovascular disease.
Fructose is metabolized in the liver. High fructose intakes result in the accumulation of triglycerides in the liver (hepatic steatosis or fatty liver.) This impairs glucose and lipid metabolism. In this study, fructose was demonstrated in vivo (in mice) and in vitro (in liver cell culture) to cause fatty liver.
The metabolism in the liver of glucose was compared to fructose. When fructose was given in combination with glucose, the metabolism of glucose was impaired in liver cells. In live animals, fructose was found to impair the metabolism of glucose and impaired insulin release that was stimulated by glucose.
The livers of mice put on a high fructose diet showed clear evidence of liver fatty liver.
CONCLUSION: Reduction of fructose ingestion is a valid target in lipid associated diseases such as hepatic steatosis, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease.
NOTE: Hepatic steatosis is called fatty liver. It is being diagnosed with increasing frequency.
Table sugar (sucrose) is derived from glucose and fructose. Read about the influence of fructose on gout.
Insulin resistance is a health condition in which insulin becomes less effective in reducing glucose levels, leading to high blood sugar levels.