Multifocal Angiostatic Therapy (MAT) is a treatment method that attempts to prevent cancers from growing new blood vessels. Angiogeneis is the growth of new blood vessels and Angiostatic treatments are aimed at slowing cancer growth. Cancers need new blood vessels to grow larger and cancers produce chemicals that change endothelial cells into blood vessel cells. Endothelial cells of tumors have the ability to form tubes that become blood vessels and are the cells that usually line the cavities of the body. The tube formations can become tiny blood vessels called capillaries.
There are oral supplements that slow the growth of these new blood vessels and limit the growth of cancers. Supplements and techniques that have been previously used in MAT to prevent angiogenesis include green tea polyphenols, fish oil, selenium, high-dose glycine, very low-fat vegan diet, aerobic exercise training, and tetrathiomolybdate, which removes copper from the body.
Diindolylmethane (DIM), a product of the metabolism of indole-3-carbinol, crushed from cruciferous vegetables slows cancer growth, possibly due to slowing of blood vessel growth. Cruciferous vegetables include cauliflower, broccoli, brussels sprouts, etc. Commercial DIM is taken in doses up to 400 mg. per day and the author believes that at this level the DIM should have the ability to slow cancer growth.
Silymarin and silibinin, extracts of milk thistle (Silybum marianum), suppress the tube forming capacity of endothelial cells and suppress the secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by many cancers. VEGF is a chemical that promotes the growth of blood vessels. Milk thistle has the advantage that high blood levels can be obtained by oral administration. Silibinin, the major component of silymarin, has the ability to prevent tube formation by direct action on the endothelial cells. The author suggests the dose of 2.5 gm. of milk thistle silymarin extract per day or 1.5 gm. of silibinin per day.
High dose zinc therapy has an angiostatic effect by reducing the blood levels of copper. Low copper levels in the blood slow angiogenesis. Tetrathiomolybdate (TM) also prevents angiogenesis by reducing copper in the body and it works quickly, but is not available in the retail market. Low levels of copper appear to inhibit a cancer’s formation of chemicals that increase tube formation.
Green tea is believed to inhibit the production of VEGF. The polyphenol of green tea extract is epigallocatechingallate (EGCG), but high blood levels of EGCG are difficult to maintain by oral use of green tea. Further studies are needed to see if the usual blood levels of green tea are sufficient to slow cancer growth.
Glycine’s activity is angiostatic, due to a hyperpolarizing effect on the plasma membrane of endothelial cells. The plasma membrane is one layer of the cell wall. The hyper polarization of the plasma membrane is angiostatic by some unknown mechanism.
The angiostatic activity of selenium is only seen with high doses of selenium that approach the doses which cause side effects of hair loss and nausea.
A very-low-fat whole-food diet is angiostatic especially when done in combination with aerobic exercise. Fish-oil-rich diets slow the growth of many cancers in rodents.
CONCLUSION: DIM, milk thistle extract, green tea extract, fish oil, glycine, selenium a low-fat vegan diet and exercise are a good program for slowing blood vessel growth and for slowing cancer growth.
Dr. William Li has a video on ted.com about blocking vessel growth (anti-angiogenesis) to block the growth of cancers. This treatment can be used to slow the progress of macular degeneration, also.